Gardens and Landscape in The Inner Space of Hospitals: Solutions For Human Comfort and Sustainability

The present work presents a study about hospitals, still in activity, in the City of Rio de Janeiro built up to the beginning of the 20th century that have environments with patios and gardens. The research characterizes hospital buildings and the respective green areas relating them with the aspects of human comfort for their respective users – patients, visitors and health professionals. In the same way, the research considers the sustainability contributions that such solutions with gardens and patios in internal areas of hospitals can result in when designing and implanting them.
The garden and the landscape are representative of the societies and the history of each individual society, because they bring symbolic references while they project symbolism through their forms, colors, materials and art. In healthcare buildings, and in hospitals in particular, the garden loses the intimacy of the residence, the home of each user, and gains new values such as protection, intimacy, leisure and physical and emotional circumstances necessary in patient care.
The conditions of human comfort and sustainability related to the implantation of patios and gardens in hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro built up to the beginning of the 20th century, still fulfill an important health care function and serve as reference of technical knowledge for development of new strategies to contemporary architecture. At the same time, the present research establishes a historical rescue of this type of architectural implantation without the use of environmental comfort technologies, especially hygrothermal and lightning, and respective aspects of environmental impacts.
The environmental impacts and their sustainable contributions with landscaping solutions and patios still represent relevant solutions for hospital buildings in several regions of the world, as well as serve as an object of study to understand the therapeutic function that health assistance can have in a complementary way.